Is there time? How do we know?

How do we know that time exists?

Our entire lives are regulated by the clocks, but what they measure is less certain. How can we be sure that time really exists? It’s time to talk to expert Kazuya Koyama.

The alarm goes off in the morning. You take your morning train to the office. Take a lunch break. You return your night train. You go for an hour. having dinner. go to bed. repeats. Birthdays are celebrated, anniversaries are recorded, and deaths are commemorated. New nations are born, empires rise and fall.

All human existence is linked to the passage of time. However, we cannot see it nor can we touch it. So, how do we know it actually exists?

Koyama begins, “In physics, we have what we call the idea of ​​’absolute time’ and it’s used to describe various changes as a series of events.” “We use Newtonian physics to describe how things move, and time is an essential component of that.” Koyama is Professor of Cosmology at the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation in[{” attribute=””>University of Portsmouth.

To this day, classic Newtonian thought on time – where time is constant throughout the universe – is still a good approximation of how humans experience time in their daily lives. We all experience time in the same way and we all synchronize our clocks in the same way, no matter where we are in the world, whether that be London, Tokyo, New York, or Buenos Aires.

There’s no time without space

Physicists though have discovered that time can actually behave differently and is not as consistent as Newton thought.

“When we speak of time, we need to think of space as well – they come in a package together,” Koyama says. “We cannot disconnect the two, and the way that an object moves through space determines how it experiences time.”

In short, the time you experience depends on your velocity through space as the observer. This works as outlined through Einstein’s special relativity, a theory of how speed impacts mass, time, and space. Additionally, according to Einstein’s general theory of relativity, the gravity of a massive object can impact how quickly time passes. Many experiments have been undertaken that have since proven this to be true.

Physicists have even found that black holes warp the immediate space-time around them due to their immense gravitational fields. Supported by the European Research Council, Koyama continues to investigate this theory.

“A good, solid example to get your head around all of this is to look at how we use GPS,” Koyama continues. “GPS works due to a network of satellites orbiting the Earth. They’re placed at a very high altitude and thus the gravity they experience is weaker. Therefore, time should actually go faster for them than it does for us on the ground, where we experience higher gravity. But because the satellites are traveling at very high speeds around the planet, this in effect helps to slow time down, compensating for the lack of gravity.”

Understanding how these two effects work and influence each other is essential for ensuring that the global GPS network functions correctly. And a crucial ingredient in this is a consistent theory of time that explains how objects move. So clocks aren’t telling us falsehoods: time indeed exists outside of our own perception.

Could we ever go backward in time?

Finally, the question of whether time travel could one day be possible had to be put before Koyama. As a professor of cosmology at the University of Portsmouth, he is best placed to tell us the truth.

“I’m sorry to disappoint you but for time travel to be possible, we would need to discover a completely new type of matter that has the power to change the curvature of time and space,” Koyama says. “Such matter would require properties that simply do not exist in nature. We physicists strongly believe that going back to the past is simply impossible – but it’s nice to fantasize about it.”

Click here to find out more about Koyama’s research: Challenging the general theory of relativity

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